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Its refugee camps provided food and shelter for several million "displaced persons. Before it was phased out on June 30, , it turned over its work to various United Nations agencies. From to served as Germany's Ambassador to Austria and as the German ambassador to Turkey between September and August Deutsch, Franco y Bahamonde, General Francisco. Fascist Caudillo leader of Spain, who refused to join the Axis and would not permit the passage of German troops through Spain to attack Gibraltar. His principal fighting contributions to the Axis cause was to allow army and air units to fight on the Easter Front Blue Division and Spanish Legion.

Indicator for a series of reports from a supposedly spurious source in the Vatican. German Counsel General in Turkey The War Refugee Board WRB was established within the Executive Office of the President by Executive Order of January 22, , "to effectuate with all possible speed the rescue and relief of victims of enemy oppression who are in imminent danger of death, and otherwise to afford such victims all possible relief and assistance consistent with the successful prosecution of the war.

The Board worked with foreign governments to gain their participation in the Board's plans and programs. The membership of the board included the Secretaries of State, War, and the Treasury. The Board was terminated by Executive Order of September 14, Financial attache at the U.

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Embassy, Lisbon, Portugal during the war. Code name for War Refugee Board. The British Statutory List was very similar to the American Proclaimed List, in that it published the names of persons and firms in areas outside of enemy control who had in some way rendered significant aid to the enemy war machine, and that those listed were proscribed from trading with the British Empire.

British Missions in December , began issuing navicerts, i. Initially, the Missions issued the navicert either on their own responsibility or after reference to the Ministry of Economic Warfare MEW. Where all the cargo in a ship was covered by navicerts the ship could be given a navicert of its own. After the fall of France when the rigor of the blockade was greatly increased the navicert procedure was made compulsory and all un-navicerted cargo was liable to be regarded as destined for the enemy.

All applications had to be referred to the MEW. At the same time the ship warrant scheme was introduced in conjunction with the Ministry of Shipping, whereby only those neutral shipowners who had given satisfactory evidence as to the employment of their vessels would be given access to British insurance, stores, repairs, and other facilities.

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In this position Himmler devised methods of mass extermination of "racial degenerates, " such as Jews, Poles, Russians, Czechs, and gypsies among others. Knopf, ; Roger Manvell and H. A conference compromise resolution "recommended " the Latin American states break relations with the Axis nations. The United States desired stronger wording.

Argentina opposed any resolution. November agreement initially between Germany and Japan to exchange information on the activities of Soviet-backed international communist parties. Goebbels recorded in his diary on January 22, , that "The Swedes and Swiss are playing with fire.

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Let us hope they will burn their fingers before this war is over. By Louis P. Goebbels served as Nazi Minister of Propaganda from until he committed suicide on May 1, Almost ten miles in length the St. Gotthard tunnel connected central and southern Switzerland. A Spanish unit of some 20, volunteers and five air squadrons, which served with the Germany Army on the Eastern Front from late to April It was disbanded at the latter date, as a result of Allied pressure, but a clandestine "Blue Legion " continued to serve until January Researchers may find useful Gerald R.

Kleinfeld and Lewis A. Laval from June to December , served as the minister of state and vice-premier in France's Petain government. He was recalled by Petain to service in April to head the Vichy government, including heading the ministries of foreign affairs, interior, and information. He was the main agent of German power in France. He raised a French army for Hitler, allowed Frenchmen to be deported to Germany for forced labor, and made no objections to Nazi plundering in France.

In September he fled to Germany. In March Hitler appointed Fritz Sauckel plenipotentiary for the mobilization of labor which made him responsible for Germany's entire workforce including foreigners including slave laborers and prisoners of war. Acronmyn derived from Geheime Staatspolizei State Secret Police , which replaced the Prussian political police in The SS Schutztaffel , protection squads formed in , became the personal bodyguard of Adolf Hitler and grew into the most powerful organization within the Nazi Party and the Nazi State under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler.

The SS served as a political police and was later assigned the duty of administering concentration camps and extermination camps. Served as Reichsbank president from December till In March , Hitler reappointed him to that position and appointed him Minister of Economics, in which position he served from to He was appointed Plenipotentiary-General for the War Economy in May , and proceeded to direct the economic preparations for war. He was dismissed as Reichsbank President on January 20, He served as Minister without Portfolio until January Josef Goebbels, served as Nazi minister of propaganda from until he committed suicide on May 1, Fred Taylor New York: G.

And trans. Hugh Trevor-Roper; trans. Researchers may find useful information about corporations among the Records of the Securities and Exchange Commission Record Group Finding aids for these records are located in the consultation area of Room Name for the Irish Free State after When the war began its prime minister Eamon de Valera declared the country neutral--the only member of the British Empire to remain outside the conflict. Researchers may find useful John P.

Nowlan and T. Ryle Dwyer, Neutral Ireland and the U. The founder of the Norwegian Fascist National Union Party, proclaimed himself Norway's prime minister after the German invasion of Norway in April , and in February , Hitler made him the country's minister-president and began the Nazification of his country. It consisted of the Baltic States, part of Byelorussia, and part of eastern Poland.

King of Bulgaria who wanted to extract Bulgaria from the war.

After a stormy meeting with Hitler he returned to Bulgaria and died on August 28, , possibly poisoned. Almost mile long tunnel that crossed the frontier between Switzerland and Italy. Site, near Smolensk, of the death of 15, Polish officers and other Poles presumably at the hands of the Russians during the spring of The site was discovered by the Germans in April Identified in various files as either a socialist or communist political leader.

The foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, Russia, and the United States met in Moscow in October , where, among other things they agreed to a declaration against those responsible for Nazi atrocities in occupied countries, to establish an European Advisory Commission, and that Austria would become an independent state after the war. Marshal Pietro Badoglio became head of the Italian Government after Mussolini was deposed in July , and signed an armistice with the Allies in September He was forced to resign during the summer of Shipping firm of international reputation, with branches in the principal European countries.

The most important German firm utilized for the packing and removal of looted art and art purchased by the Germans in occupied countries. Salazar became prime minister and virtual dictator of Portugal in Inclined towards Fascism, but detested the Nazis. Maintained strictly neutral stance until October when he allowed the Allies an air base on the Azores. At am on April 1, , thirty-eight heavy bombers of the United States 8th Air Force, apparently believing they were over the Germany city of Tuttlingen, bombed Schauffhausen. Destroyed were a group of small factories producing anti-aircraft shells, ball-bearings, and Me parts for Germany.

In all sixty-six buildings were consumed by fire and more than damaged; people were left homeless, injured, and 40 killed. Auschwitz, in southern Poland, miles southwest of Warsaw, was the location of three concentration camps and 36 sub-camps, which were built during the period. Auschwitz I, under the command of Rudolf Hoess, was built in May-June for Polish political prisoners; Auschwitz II, or Birkenau which became an extermination camp , opened in October with a capacity for , inmates, and Auschwitz III, at nearby Monowitz, supplied forced labor for the nearby I.

Farben synthetic rubber and oil plant. It is estimate that at least 1. Steven Paskul; trans. Lwow, a major city in southeast Poland and during German occupation July, became the site of a major ghetto and the infamous Janowska Street concentration camp. The killing of the city's , Jews was completed by November The site of the first Nazi Party concentration camp located 12 miles north of Munich.

It opened in March , under the command of Theodor Eicke. During the war the number of inmates grew to about 17,, including Socialists, Communists, Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals. In all some , people were held at Dachau, of which somewhere between 30, and 60, perished. Researchers may find useful Marcus J. Chairman of the Federal Department of Economics, that is, minister of economic affairs, from to On July 17, , President Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation , which instructed the Secretary of State to prepare an appropriate list of persons working with or for the Axis and persons to whom exports from the United States were deemed to be detrimental to the interests of national defense.

The resulting Division of World Trade Intelligence and its successor, the Division of Economic Security Controls, prepared the original "Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals " and maintained its various supplements and revisions from to The lists named persons and companies, resident in areas outside of enemy control, who directly or indirectly rendered substantial aid to the enemy war machine.

Those listed were denied the privilege of trading with the United States. The Todt Organization, formed by Fritz Todt in February appointed Minister for Weapons and Munitions , was responsible for construction projects e.

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More than 1. In February , Todt was killed in a mysterious air accident. His successor, Albert Speer, increased the size and activities of the organization, which was renamed Front-Todt in the fall of Situated near Weimar, Germany, opened in July It supplied forced labor to local armament manufacturers, which operated 24 hours a day, using two hour shifts of prisoners. It is estimated that of the some , people imprisoned there, over 56, died. It was liberated on April 10, It was also one of the chief executive organs of the annihilation of the Jews, gypsies, Communists, and "Asiatic inferiors.

During the war SD personnel were responsible for reporting on the morale of the civilian population; active against partisans in the occupied countries; executed thousands of prisoners; and, along with the SS, helped to clear the ghettoes in the east. At the extermination camp at Lublin, Poland, some , Poles, Russians, Jews and people of 17 other nationalities were murdered between and In he was appointed head of the security police Sicherheitspolizei, or Sipro , within the Ministry of the Interior, giving him nationwide control of the Gestapo and the criminal police Kriminalpolizei, or Kripo.

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Lowell Blair New York: Morrow, Ernst vom Rath, a third secretary in the German embassy in Paris was assassinated on November 7, died from his wounds on November 9 , by a seventeen-year old Polish Jewish student. German Post Office Saving Bank. He was involved in Schloss and Mannheimer collection forced sales, and the official chiefly responsible for Hitler's looting and purchasing policies after German or Swiss national of Italian birth.

She was a contact of Frau Maria Schmidlin and allegedly involved in art looting transactions. Jewish dealer, active formerly in Berlin, Munich, and Amsterdam.

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Former brother-in-law of Walter Andreas Hofer and his former employer. His Dutch firm was aryanized after Hofer arranged to have his sister divorced from him. Martin Bormann was private secretary to Hitler and later director of the party chancellery, Reich Minister, and member of the Cabinet Council for Defense. During the last year of the war Bormann was the most important man in the Reich with the exception of Hitler, who he was often near to coordinate access to the Fuhrer.

German film actress, director, and producer most noted for two films she produced in the s, Triumph of the Will and Olympia. Martin's Press, German national; considered a strong Nazi and possibly implicated in looting transactions. Had contacts with Lindpaintner, Frey, and Fischer. Former German cavalry officer and amateur art dealer, with broad official and aristocratic connections throughout Europe. Art dealer of German birth and Hungarian citizenship.