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If such policies make workers more expensive, firms will hire fewer of them. If on the other hand wages are kept very low and benefits are reasonably generous, workers may be dissuaded from looking for jobs. And at a time when fiscal demands on taxpayers are rising, governments cannot afford to allow labour-market participation to fall and thus reduce their tax base.

Some research suggests that modest increases in minimum wages can lead to productivity improvements. That may be because they reduce worker turnover, or because they prompt firms to invest in their workers or get them to work harder.

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Yet although higher minimum wages can be politically appealing, their use will need to remain limited. The easier it becomes to automate basic work, the less of a nudge firms will need to swap workers for machines when wages rise. One way of squaring that circle would be for governments to provide wage subsidies. Such payments encourage participation in the labour force by making work more worthwhile for low-paid workers without discouraging firms from recruiting.

Economists frown on the idea of sharing out work to make it go further, but as a temporary measure it has been used with some success. The best-known example is that of the Kurzarbeit programmes used in Germany during the recession following the financial crisis. Workers accepted a shorter working week in lieu of lay-offs, and the government helped make up the resulting shortfall in income.

A Foundational Question

If the dislocating effect of technology turns out to be really severe this time, governments might consider offering a universal basic income, just sufficient to live on, to which all working-age adults would be entitled. A basic income for all is an old idea receiving new attention because of the recent labour-market upsets.

The idea of a guaranteed income runs smack against core beliefs regarding the meaning and importance of work. Allowing people to become full-time couch potatoes at public expense is abhorrent to those who reckon that healthy adults should contribute to society in order to benefit from its economic output, as well as to those who see work as a source of personal dignity or a means to maintain mental balance, to say nothing of the majority who would still be working for their living and generating the tax income that would fund such a scheme.

Entitlement to a basic income might be linked to a requirement to seek a regular job, take part in make-work schemes or engage in volunteering. Yet economic liberals might argue that such paternalism is unlikely to make anyone better off.


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And freedom from want might create scope for other socially benign activities, such as work or self-employment that generates some income, just not enough to live on. Given a basic income, many more budding entrepreneurs might launch businesses doing something they feel passionate about. Whichever way governments respond, budgets will be tested.

Even modest increases in income subsidies imply both a rise in government spending as a share of GDP and a concentration of the tax burden on a smaller share of the population.

means to an end

A higher tax burden will encourage tax avoidance among the very rich and distort economic decisions. If they are squeezed too much, some of them might take their money and move elsewhere. Governments got much bigger after previous technological revolutions. They cannot expand much more without running into serious fiscal constraints.

Tax competition may become an increasingly divisive international issue. Some of the highly mobile rich will be attracted by countries with low-tax, low-spending regimes, whereas the relatively immobile poor will hope for generous state benefits at home. Governments may need to tighten up their residence rules to prevent the rich from pretending to live in a low-tax country to minimise their tax bill, and tax regimes may need to be co-ordinated to discourage avoidance and evasion.

But Means to An End is more than a novel about one woman's search for freedom: it's an interconnected story of family relationships, repetitive cycles, and patterns of acting and reacting, covering all the elements that influence courage and survival. Means to An End. I was acutely conscious that today was a means to an end.

Time affected moral judgments in this way when hypothetical scenarios involved harming someone as a means to an end , Suter and Hertwig report in an upcoming Cognition. Time twists morality. This is, of course, only a means to an end. The really important thing in all this is the Welsh language - and how Welsh TV can play its part in protecting it.

Easing the transition - Means and ends | Special report | The Economist

ALWAYS treat your customers, co-workers and business partners as an end in themselves, and never only as a means to an end. Religion is a means to an end , but not the only means. Le Guin , The Lathe of Heaven , ch. Lewis , The World's Last Night As my poor d'Artagnan used to swear, the importance of the end justifies the meanness of the methods.

The means people create distinctions among means and call it morality. The ends people understand that in this world, in this system we're born into, anything that gets you what you want is a good thing.

see The result justifies the deed. Ovid , Heroides The Heroines , II, 85 Often it is means that justify ends: Goals advance technique and technique survives even when goal structures crumble. But the end in its turn needs to be justified. Leon Trotsky , Their Morals and Ours This concept of "national defense" cannot be deemed an end in itself, justifying any exercise of legislative power designed to promote such a goal. Earl Warren , United States v. Robel See also [ edit ] Utilitarianism Negative utilitarianism External links [ edit ].

Ethical Dilemma Of Means and Ends